Optimization of mixed spices from scent leaf, curry and African Black Pepper

Main Article Content

Kuyik Solomon Abasiekong
Innocent Nwazulu Okwunodulu
Ben Uyime Okorie,


D-optimal mixture design and the numerical optimization technique were used to optimize mixed spices produced from three leafy vegetables Scent leaf (Ocimum grastissimum), Curry (Murray koemigii) and African black pepper (Piper guineense), as the factors. The spices were blended according to the mixture design combinations generated based on the three factors and modelled with three sensory attributes (flavour, appearance and general acceptability) as the responses. Results indicated that 80:10:10 (scent leaf:curry:African black pepper leaves) mixed spice which was outstanding in sensory evaluation with scores of 8 (flavor), 7 (appearance) and 8 (general acceptability),   was selected as the optimized product. Further evaluation of the optimized product showed a mineral profile of 1.462 (zinc), 0.326 (copper), 489.476 (calcium), 6.418 (magnesium), and 6.169 mg/100g (iron). Phytochemical profile showed the presence of phenol (0.15), tannin (0.72), phytase (0.56), flavonoid (0.73), sterol (0.14), alkaloid (0.95), oxalate (0.53) and saponin (0.94 mg/100g). Meanwhile the heavy metal screening showed that lead and cadmium were not detected. These results show that local spices, besides possessing excellent nutraceutical properties, can be processed into highly acceptable novel flavor enhancing products.

Article Details



Alemu, A., Tamiru, W., Nedi, T. and Shibeshi, W. (2018). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of 80% methanol extract of Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm. f.) Iwarsson leaves in rodent models. Evidence - Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Article ID 1614793, 8 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1614793.
AOAC (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 16th Edition. Washington D. C., USA.
Asaolu, S. S. and Asaolu, M. F. (2010). Trace metal distribution in Nigerian leafy vegetables. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9(1): 91 – 92.
Ayoola, P. B., Adeyeye, I. and Onawumi, O. O. (2010). Trace elements and major minerals evaluation of Spondias mombin, Verornia amydalina and Mmordica charatia leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9(8):755 – 756.
Chima, M. (2002). Uziza (Piper guineense) – local food condiments in Nigeria. Journal of African Medicinal Plants 18:114-119.
Dghaim, R., Khatib, S. A., Rasool, H. and Khan, M. A. (2015). Determination of heavy metals concentration in traditional herbs commonly consumed in the United Arab Emirate. Journal of Environment and Public Health. Article ID 973878, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/973878.
Elbossaty, W. F. (2017). Mineralization of bones in osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Annals of Clinical Laboratory Research 5(4):201. DOI:10.21767/2386-5180.1000201
Harborn, J. B. (1973). Textbook of Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall Ltd, London pp. 49-188.
https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/ethnobotany/food/spices.shtml (14th May, 2020) U.S. Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Husain, N, Pandey, B., Trak, T. H. and Chauhan, D. (2019). Medical virtues and phytochemical constituents of some of the important Indian spices. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 8(11): 909-919.
James, C. S. (1995). Experimental Methods of Analytical Chemistry of Food. Chapman and Hall, New York pp. 6:75 – 84.
Li, Y., Raghavarao, D., Chervoneva, I. (2017). Extensions of D-optimal minimal designs for symmetric mixture models. Journal Communications in Statistics – Theory and Methods 46:5, 2542-2558, DOI: 10.1080/03610926.2014.988258
Oberlease, D. (1973). Phytases. In: toxicant occurring naturally in foods. National Academy of Science, Washington, D. C. 363 – 371.
Onwuka, G. I. (2018). Food Analysis and Instrumentation – Theory and Practice. 2nd Edition. Naphthali Prints, Lagos pp. 414-441.
Pathasarathy, V. A., Chempakam, B. and Zachariah, T. J. (2008). Chemistry of Spices. Biddles Ltd, UK.
Pearson, D. (1976). Chemical Analysis of Food, 7th Edition. Churchhill, London pp 7-11.
Sa, A. G. A., Moreno, Y. M. F., Carciofi, B. A. M. (2020). Plant proteins as high-quality nutritional source for human diet. Trends in Food Science and Technology 97:170 – 184.
Techtron, V. (1975). Basic Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy a Modern Introduction. Dominican Press, Victoria, Australia, pp. 104-106.
Ukpabi, A. and Ejidoh, E. O. (1989). Experimental Procedures of Food and Water Analysis. San Press Publishers, Enugu, Nigeria pp. 89.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2005). Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2006). WHO Guidelines for Assessing Quality of Herbal Medicines with Reference to Contaminants and Residues, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.