Rainfall and Temperature trends in Samaru and Minjibir, Northern Guinea and Sudan Savannas of Nigeria

Main Article Content

A. M. Yamusa
A. Abdulkadir (Mrs.)


The changing trend of rainfall and temperature has been shown to vary in magnitudes in different regions of the globe and this has raised a lot of concerns with regards to the changing climate. This study investigated the rainfall and temperature trends from data collected from two research centers located in Samaru, Zaria (11º 11’N; 7º38’E and Minjibir, Kano (11º59’N; 8º 34’E), both in the northern Guinea and Sudan Savannas of Nigeria respectively. Mean annual rainfall from 1968 to 2017 was 1015.9 mm in Samaru and shows a trend of later onset and early cessation. In Minjibir, mean annual 744.5mm of rainfall (1975 -2017) whose onset was almost the same for the years studied, show a trend of early cessation. Standardized rainfall anomaly was experienced in 43% of years between late 1960’s to early 1990’s with varying degrees of drought from moderate to severe, while conditions of no drought to extreme wetness was observed from 2000’s till date with exception of few years. Similar trend was observed in Kano, with 39% of the years in the 1970’s to 1990’s with moderate to severe droughts, with no drought in the years from 2000’s till date. An increasing trend at the rate of 0.61oC and 0.34oC at Samaru and 0.67oC and 0.76oC at Kano for the maximum and minimum temperatures respectively was experienced, with mean minimum temperatures of 17.2 ºC in 1995 (the lowest recorded from 1968) and 20.9 ºC in 2013 in Samaru. Mean maximum temperatures were 29.5 ºC in 1970 and increased to 34.5 ºC in 2017 in Samaru, while the highest mean maximum temperature was 35.4 ºC recorded in 2011 for Minjibir. These results show the climatic cycles for rainfall and drought events and the increasing global temperatures, confirming a changing climate. Mitigation and adaptation strategies in these agroecological zones and the globe in general remain a crucial option to the consequences of climate change.

Article Details



Abaje, I.B., Ati, O.F. and Iguisi, E.O. (2012). Changing Climatic Scenerios and Strategies for Drought Adaptation and Mitigation in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Nigeria. In M.A Iliya and Dankani (eds), Climate change and Sustainable Development in Nigeria. (pp 99- 121).Ibadan: Crown F. publishers
Adefolalu, D. O. (1986). Rainfall trends in Nigeria. Theor Appl Climatol.; 37:205–19.
Agnew, C.T. and A. Chappel. (1999): Drought in the Sahel. GeoJournal 48: 299-311.
Anosike, R.N (1999) Assessment of the main methods for estimating potential in West Africa Soil and Tillage Res. 20. 165-186.
Ati, O.F, Iguisi, E.O. and Afolayan, J.O. (2007). Are we Experiencing Drier Conditions in the Sudano-sahelian Zone of Nigeria? Journal of Applied Science Resources., 3(12):1746-1751. Retrieved May 31, 2008 from http://www/insinet.net/jasr/2007/1746-1751.pdf
Bunting, A.H., Dennet, M.D., Elston, J. & Milford, J.R. (1976). Rainfall trends in the West African Sahel. Quarterly Journal Royal Meteorological Society, 102, 59.
Druyan (2011). Studies of 21st Centuary Precipitation trends over West Africa. Int. J. Climt. 31(10), 1415-1424
Ekpoh I.J. (1991). The Effects of Climatic Variability on Agriculture in Northern Nigeria. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
Ekpoh, I. J. and Ekpenyong N. (2011). Extreme Climatic variability in North-Western Nigeria. An analysis of rainfall trends and patterns. Journal of Geography and Geology Vol. 3 No. 1 Pp. 51-62.
Folland, C.K., Palmer, T.N. & Parker, D.E. (1986). Sahel rainfall variability and worldwide sea temperatures, 1901 – 85. Nature, 320, 602-606
Iken, J. E., and Amusa, N. A. (2004). Maize Research and Production in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol.3 (6) Pp. 302 – 307
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate (IPCC, 2007). Climate change 2007. The fourth assessment report (AR4). Synthesis report for policy makers http: //www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf. (Access 10th August, 2009).

Mortimore, M. and Adams, W.M. (2001). Farmer Adaptation, change and crisis in the Sahel. Global Environmental Change, 11, 49-57. Doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03154-X,
NCAT (2008). Nigerian College of Aviation Technology, Zaria Meteorological data
Nicholson, 1993. Nicholson, S. E. (1993). ‘An Overview of African rainfall fluctuations of the last decade’. Monthly Weather Review, 111, 1646 1654. doi:10.1175/1520-493(1983)111<1646:SSRITY>2.0.CO
NIMET (Nigerian Meteorological Agency),(2015). Seasonal Rainfall Prediction for 2015 Season and Year 2014 Climate Review.
New (2006). Evidence of trends in daily climate extremes over Southern and West Africa. J. of Geophysical Research 111, D14102
Odekunle, T.O., (2006). Determining rainy season onset and retreat over Nigeria from precipitation amount and number of rainy days. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 83, 193– 201.
Olanrewaju, R.M. (2006). Implication of Late Onset of Rains in a Coastal Ecological Area: The Case Study of Lagos and its Environs. Geo-studies Forum. An International Journal of Environmental & Policy Issues, a Publication of the Department of Geography, University of Ilorin. Volume 3, Numbers 1 & 2, 2006; p. 8
Oliver J. E. 1980. Monthly precipitation distribution: a comparative index. Professional Geographer 32: 300-309.
Oluwasemire, K.O. and Alabi, S.O. (2004). Ecological Impact of Changing Rainfall Pattern, Soil Processses and Environmental Pollution in Nigerian Sudan and Northern Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecological Zones, Nigerian J. of Soil Res. 5:23 – 31.
Omotosho, J. B., Balogun, A. A., and K. Ogunjobi (2000). Predicting Monthly and Seasonal Rainfall, Onset and Cessation of the Rainy Season in West Africa using only Surface Data. Int. J. Climatol. 20: 865–880.
Oruonye, E.D. (2014a). An assessment of the level of aware¬ness of climate change and variability among rural farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research 1(3):70–84.
Oruonye, E.D. (2014b). An assessment of the trends of climatic variables in Taraba State Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research 14(4):1–13.
Umar, A.T. (2011) Climate change in Nigeria: Evidence from meteorological parameters. Paper presented at 2011 ANG conference at Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto
Spore (2008). Climate change Special Issue August, 2008. P. 23.
Yamusa, A.M., Abu, S.T., Yahaya, R.A. and Musa, I.J. (2013). Assessing the planting date of sorghum in a changing climate at Samaru, Northern Nigeria. International Journal of Biological and Environmental Sciences for the Tropics, (Bayero University Kano, Nigeria) 10 (2), Pp. 21 - 26