Effects of Water and Ethanol Extracts of Allium Sativum on Selected Haematological and Biochemical Parameters in Wister Rats

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O. C. Amoke
A. N. C. Amadi


Allium sativum (garlic) is known to have anti-hypertensive, anti-rheumatic, etc, properties and therefore used in the treatment or alleviation of various ailments, such as asthma, diabetes, paralysis, forgetfulness, tumor, colichy pain and chronic fever. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of its cloves were tested for their effects on selected haematological and biochemical effects on Wister albino rats. Each of the extract was administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (mg/kg bw) to the appropriate groups. The water extract at 100 mg/kg bw significantly (P < 0.05) elevated the levels of RBC, WBC and lymphocytes but not PVC and Hb, all relative to control (Group 1, GP 1). At 200 mg/kg bw but however, the same extract caused non-significant (P > 0.05) elevations of all the parameters, except WBC which was lowered but not significantly (P > 0.05). Relative to GP 1, the ethanol extract at 100 mg/kg bw significantly (P < 0.05) elevated the levels of most haematological parameters studied. At 200 mg/kg bw it significantly (P < 0.05) elevated the RBC and lymphocyte level while the other parameters displayed irregular changes relative to other groups. The water extract at 100 mg/kg bw significantly (P < 0.05) elevated the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin but not acid phosphatase, which was insignificantly (P > 0.05) lowered. At 200 mg/kg bw, alkaline phosphatase displayed significant (P < 0.05) elevations relative to the GP 1, while acid phosphatase was lowered insignificantly (P > 0.05). The ethanol extract significantly (P < 0.05) elevated the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin at 100 mg/kg bw and lowered acid phosphatase. The levels of alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were significantly elevated at 200 mg/kg bw when compared with GP 1 but lowered acid phosphatase significantly (P < 0.05). Both the water and ethanol extracts of A. sativum at 100 mg/kg bw had the most profound effects on all the parameters studied but these was a glaring dose-dependent inconsistency in the effects observed. 

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