Main Article Content
Bacterial contamination and antibiogram of multi-user computer keyboard interface in various parts of Michael Okpara University, Umudike was evaluated. A total of 100 moistened swab samples of computer keyboard interface were collected from different locations within the University community, inoculated on solid culture media and incubated aerobically for 24hours at 370C. Isolation and identification of bacteria were done by standard microbiological techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion. One hundred and four (104) bacterial isolates comprising eight (8) different bacteria genera were observed. These include; Staphylococcus aureus (12.5%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (6.7%), Streptococcus spp (5.7%), Bacillus spp (25%), Escherichia coli (34.6%), Klebsiella spp (5.7%), Proteus spp (2.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.7%). Computer village had the highest incidence of profuse bacterial contamination of keyboards (Streptococcus spp; 73.6±14.8). Antibiotic sensitivity testing of isolates revealed a mild pattern of resistance to commonly available antibiotics. The study has shown that multi-user computer keyboards can habour several populations of bacterial pathogens that can lead to community acquired infections in a university community.
Awe, S., Eniola, K.I.T. and Livingstone, S.T. (2013). “Bacteriological assessment of computer keyboards and mouse used in Salem University, Lokoja”. American journal of Research communication, 1(12): 398 – 412.
Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M., Sherris, J.K. and Turck, M. (1966). “Antibiotic susceptibility testing by standardized single disk method”. American journal of clinical pathology.45:493– 496.
Cheesbrough, M. (2006) District Laboratory practice in tropical countries. Cambridge University press, United Kingdom 2:157-199
Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (2005)Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Fifteen Information Supplement, M100-S15.
Enemour, S.C., Apeh, T.A and Oguntibesu, O.O (2012) “Microorganisms associated with computer keyboards and mice in a university environment” African Journal of Microbiology Research 6(20), 4424-4426.
Eltablawy, S. Y and Elhifnawi, H.N (2009). Microbial contamination of some computer keyboards and mice in National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology. World Applied Science Journal., 6(2): 162-167.
Hartmann, B., Matthias, B., Axei, J., Lorenjo, Q., Ranner, R., Bernhard, F., Udo, W.F., Burkhard, W and Gunter, A (2004). Computer keyboard and mouse as a reservoir of pathogens in an intensive care unit. Journal of clinical monitor and computer, 39: 234-242.
Manijeh, M., Azar, D.K., and Marjan, A. (2012). “Study of bacterial contamination of keyboards and mouse in a medical school computer centre”. Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H, 6(3):889 – 892.
Nelly, A. N and sittig, D. F (2002). “Basic microbiologic and infection control information to reduce the potential transmission of pathogens to patients via computer hardware”, JAMIA, (9): 500-508.
Oluduro, A.O., Ubina, E.K and Ofoezie, I.G. (2011). “Bacterial assessment of electronic hardware user interfaces in Ile-Ife, Nigeria” Journal of Basic Applied and Pharmaceutical Science 32(3), 323-334.
Onasonya, S.A (2002). The impact of computer in a developing country like Nigeria: Nigerian Journal of Research and production (NIJOREP) Vol. 1 ww.dailymail.co.uk/Health/article.
Palmer, S.R., Bray, S.L. (2001). Longitudinal study of computer usage in flexible engineering education. Australian Journal of Education Technology., 17:313-314
Shahriar, S., Mohammad, S., Negin, G., Zahra, B., Farrokh, F and Nahid pourhashem (2014). Bacterial contamination of computer keyboards and mouse in Tabriz Dentistry school. Indian Journal of research 3:47-48.
Tagoe, D.N.A and Kumi-Ansah, F. (2011). “Computer keyboard and mice: potential sources of disease transmission and infection”. Internet Journal of public Health. 1(2). DOI: 10.5580/a19
Wala’a, S.A., Khitam Ali Obiaid Alkhezali and Buthainah Mohammed Taha. (2013). Bacterial contamination of computer keyboards and mice in a University setting. Journal of Biology 3:11-13.