Changes in the Nutritional Quality of Dessert Banana (Musa spp) Ripened with Different Ripenning Agents

Main Article Content

E N Mba
S. I. Egba
O. D. Omodamiro


Different artificial ripening agents are used in the ripening of climacteric fruits in South-Eastern Nigeria and other locations as well. Nutritional effect of artificial ripening of dessert bananas was investigated. Calcium carbide, torch batteries, wood ash and avocado pear were employed as ripening agents. Changes in nutritional composition were determined comparing artificially ripened with naturally ripened and unripe banana fruits. Fruits ripened using calcium carbide (ARB1) ripened by day 2, while fruits ripened with torch batteries (ARB2) and wood ashes (ARB3) took 4 days to ripen. Avocado pear (ARB4) and naturally ripened bananas (NRB) ripened by day 3 and day 7 respectively. Selected minerals, proximate and vitamin content of these fruit pulp were analyzed. Ash and moisture content of banana pulps increased during ripening in the range 1.0-1.9% and 69.00-74.10% respectively while carbohydrate content reduced (26.52-20.57%). Protein content increased from 1.6-1.8% while fibre content reduced from 1.6-1.05%. Mineral contents as Magnesium, Zinc and Potassium were highest in unripe (7.60mg/100g), naturally ripened (7.80mg/100g) and wood ash ripened (38.43mg/100g) fruits respectively. Vitamins analyzed were high in naturally ripened fruits with B2 at 2.40mg/100g and C at 35.30mg/100g while B6 was higher in avocado pear ripened fruits at 2.60mg/100g. Findings suggest that these artificial ripening agents investigated reduced nutritional quality of bananas.


Article Details



Adeyemi, O. S and Oladiji, A. T. 2009. Compositional changes in banana (Musa ssp.) fruits during ripening. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(5): 858-859.
Adewole, M.B and Duruji, R.W. 2010. Quality assessment of plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) as affected by different ripening methods. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(38):6290-6293.
Ajayi, A.R and Mbah, G.O. 2007. Identification of indigenous ripening technologies of banana and plantain fruits among women-marketers in Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Food, Environment & Extension 6(2): 60-66.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist). (2000). Official method of Analysis of the AOAC international 15th Edition, Washington D.C. Chapter 26 p.17, chapter 45 p.42.
Bayeri, K.P., Aba, S.C., Otitoju, G.T and Mbah, O.B. 2011. The effect of ripening and cooking method on mineral and proximate composition of plantain (Musa spp. AAB CV. Agbagba) fruit pulp. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(36):6979-6984.
Clendennen, S.K and May, G.D.1997. Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit. Plant Physiology 115:463.

Dhembare, A.J. 2013. Bitter truth about fruit with reference to artificial ripener. Archives of Applied Science Research 5(5):45-54
Fonad, T.M. 1996. The physiochemical roles of chelated minerals in maintaining optimal body biological function. Journal of Applied Nutrition 28:5-23
Gray, J., Picton, S., Shebheer, J., Schuchi, W and Grierson, D. 1992. Molecular biology of fruit ripening and its manipulation with antisense gene. Plant Molecular Biology 1(19): 69-87.
Hakim, M.A., Obidulhuq, A.K., Alam, M.A., Khatib, A., Saha, B.K., Formuzulhaque, K.M and Zaidul, I.S.M. 2012. Role of health hazardous ethephone in nutritive values of selected pineapple, banana and tomato. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 10(2):247-251.
Hossain, M. F., Akhtar, S and Anwar, M. 2015. Health hazards posed by the consumption of artificially ripened fruits in Bangladesh. International Food Research Journal 22(5): 1755-1760. (Accessed January 25, 2017)
James, C.J. 1995. The Analytical Chemistry of Foods. Chapman and Hall Press, New York, p 86.
Mahmood, T., Saeed, I., Anwer, H and Mahmood, I. 2013. Comparative study to evaluate the effect of calcium carbide (CaC2) as an artificial ripening agent on shelf life, physio-chemical properties, iron containment and quality of prunuspersica l. Batsch. European Academic Research 1: 5-12
Maina, H.M., Heidi, E.S., and Shagal, M.H. 2012. Analytical screening of nutritional and non-essential components in unripe and ripe fruits of banana (Musa sapientum). International Journal for Medicinal Plant Research 1(3): 020-025.
Mohan, T., Rajesh, P.N., Zuhra, K.F and Vijitha, K. 2014. Magnitude of Changes in the Activity of Amylases and Cellulase and its Association with the Biochemical Composition during Maturation and Ripening of Banana (Musa spp.). Biochemistry and Physiology 3:127.
Mohaptra, D., Mishra, S and Sutar, N. 2010. Banana and its by-product utilization: an overview. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 69:323-329.
Onwuka, G. I. 2005. Food Analysis and Instrumentation: Theory and Practice. Naphthali Prints, Lagos Nigeria, p 64.
Payasi, A and Sanwal, G.G. 2005. Biochemistry of Fruit ripening. Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry 18(2):51-60.
Pedapati, A. 2015. Factors affecting fruit ripening in bananas.[Accessed July 3, 2016].
Rahman, A.U., Chowdhury, F.R and Alam, M.B. 2008. ‘Artificial ripening: what we are eating’. Journal of Medicine 9: 42-44.

Seymour, G.B., Poole, M., Giovannani, J.J and Tucker G.A. 2013. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening. Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons Inc, UK, Oxford. pp 4.
Singal, S., Kumud, M., and Thakral, S. 2012. Application of apple as a ripening agent for banana. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 3(1):61-64.
Sogo-Temi, C.M., Idowu, O.A., and Idowu, E. 2014. Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional and Metal Composition of Banana (Musa Spp). Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 18(2): 243-246.
Toboso, M.T., Orttiz, I.C, Serino, B.C and Bernice J. 2013. The effect of wood ashes in hastening the ripeness of bananas and mangoes. Term paper ware house. (Accessed April 24th, 2016).
USDA National Nutrient Database 2010. (Assessed on April 22nd, 2016).
Xuewu, D., Gapiing, C and Yueming, J. 2008. Modification of pectin polysaccharides during ripening of postharvest banana fruits. Food Chemistry 111 (1): 144-149.