Optimising the effects of Additives and Briqetting on the Calorific Values of Oilpalm Fiber Using Response Surface Methodology

Main Article Content

U. J. Etoamaihe
G. I. Ucheibe
N. R. Nwakuba


Thirty grammes (30gms)of oil palm fiber were mixed with three different weights of sawdust and slurry oil (5,10,and 15gm) respectively, dried and compacted to three bulk density levels of 1.86,2.0,and 2.14g/ml with a briquetting machine. Calorific values of the samples were determined using a bomb calorimeter. (Model XRY-1A). The experimental design used was Response Surface Methodology, exploring the effects of the three levels of the three factors of quantity of sawdust, slurry oil and compaction density of the oil palm fiber on the calorific values of the samples. The factors that affected the calorific yield of the oil palm fiber are the linear and quadratic effects of the quantity of slurry oil added to the mixture. This factors accounted for about 92.2% of the variation in effects. Also the linear and quadratic effects of compacted density were significant at 5% probability levels.

Article Details



Agriga, A. N. and Iwe, M. O. (2008). Physical Properties of Cookies Produced from Cassava Groundnut-Corn Starch Blend. A Response Surface Analysis. Nigerian Food Journal 26 (2): 83 – 96.
Demirbas A., (2004). Relationship between Lignin contents and Heating Value of Biomass. Energy Conversion and Management, 42:183-188.
Deniz,B, and Ismail, H.B,(2007) Modelling and Optimization: Usability of Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Food Engineering.78(3):836-845.
Etoamaihe, U.J, (2015).Effects of Additives and Briquetting on the Calorific Values of Cassava Peels Using Response Surface Methodology. ASABE Annual International Meeting 152186792. (doi:10.13031/aim.20152186792)
Jau, K.W, Hua, S. C, and Ching, S.H (2009). Optimization of the Medium Components By Statistical Experimental Methods To Enhance Nattokinase Activity. Fooyin Journal of Health Sciences 1(1)21-27.
Kathleen, M.C,, Natalia Y.K, and Jeff R. (2004). Response Surface Methodology: A Technical Report: School of Computer Science Mellon Univ. Pittsburgh P.A
Kavalek, M; Havrland, B; Pecen; Ivanova, T, and Hutla, P. (2013). Oilpalm Shell Use as Alternative Biofuel. Journal of Agronomy Research 11(1):183-188
Khuri, A.I and Cornell J.A. (1996). Response Surfaces. 2nd Edition Dekker, New York
Mekhilef, S; Siga S and Saidur R,(2010). A Review on Palm Oil Bio Diesel as a Source of Fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.15: 1937-1949
Myers, R.H, and Montgomery, D.C (2002). Response Surface Methodology- Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons New York.
Ohunakin, S.O. (2010). Energy Utilization and Renewable Energy Sources in Nigeria. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 5(2) 171-177
Sambo, A. S. (2009). Challenges of Sustainable Energy Development in Nigeria. The NSE Forum, Shehu Yar’Adua Centre Abuja
Tunde,O; Titilayo, A; Kunle, A; Femi, O., and Adelana, A. (2016).Energy Crisis in Nigeria: Need for Renewable Energy Mix. American Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.4 (1):1-8
NIST/SEMATECH (2012). e-Handbook of Statistical Methods http://www.itl.nist.gov/div 898, Accessed 17th January 2019.
WWW.Sciencedirect.com (2019). Response Surface Methodology: An Overview .Accessed 30th October 2019.
WWW.Intechopen.com (2019).Utilization of Response Methods in Optimization. Accessed 30thOctober 2019.