Insecticidal Effects of Some Plant Leaf Extracts and Cypermethrin against Eggplant Shoot and Fruit Borer Leucinodes Orbonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Infestation on Eggplant

Main Article Content

K. C. Emeasor
O. A. Uwalaka


Field trials were conducted on the damage assessment of L. orbonalis and effect of application of some plant leaf extracts and Cypermethrin on yield of eggplant at the Vegetable Research Farm of National Horticultural Research Institute, Mbato Substation, Okigwe, Imo State during the cropping seasons of 2013 and 2014. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates of fourteen plots each. Treatments consisted of ethanolic leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.), Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) and Ocimum gratissimum (L.) each at 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations. Cypermethrin (12.5% E.C.) was used as a standard check and distilled water as control. Eggplant seeds were sown in the nursery and six weeks after sowing, seedlings were transplanted at a spacing of 1m × 1m on the experimental plots of 9m2. Data were collected on the population of L. orbonalis, number of fruits of S. gilo, number of punctures on fruits and number of damaged fruits (% fruit damage). Results obtained indicated significant differences (P<0.05) between the treatments and control on the mean number of damaged fruits, with Cypermethrin recording the lowest (2.46%) and 100% M. oleifera extract (3.03%) for the two seasons. Mean number of fruits per plot significantly increased in all the tested plant extracts and Cypermethrin compared with the control at P<0.05. Their application reduced the L. orbonalis number and also caused increased fruiting, although their efficacies varied with plants that received 100% Moringa oleifera extract producing the highest (187.70) number of fruits/plant/plot and corresponding greater yield of 7033.33kgha-1 while the control recorded highest (20.60) number of damaged fruits.  Results also showed that the plant extracts applied as bio-insecticides were effective against L. orbonalis as their application significantly reduced the insect pest population, which resulted in the reduction in the number of holes/punctures on fruits compared to the control.

Article Details

Articles/Crop & Soil Sciences


Adukary, S. (1984). Result of the field trails to control common insect pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Togo by application of crude methanolic extraction of leaves and seed kernels of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) Zang Ento (4) 327 – 331.
Babu, B. S., Varaprasad, K. S., Anitha, K., Prasada Rao, R. D. V. J., Chakrabarty, S. K., Chandurkar, P. S., (2002) Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) status in coastal districts of Orissa. Resources management in plant protection during twenty first century, Hyderabad, India, Vol 2.Pp. 121-123.
Bello, S. O., Muhammad, B. Y., Gammaniel, K. S., Abdu – Agguye I., Ahmed, H., Njoku, C. H., Pindiga, U. H. and Salka, A. M. (2010). Preliminary Evaluation of the toxicity and some pharmacological properties of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Solanum melongena. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 1(1), 1 – 9.
Biradar, A.P., Teggelli, R.G., Patil D.R., Balikai R.A., (2001) Evaluation of cypermethrin 3 EC+ quinalphos 20 EC (23 EC) against brinjal shoot and fruit borer. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14(2):369-372.
Bukill, H. M. (2005). The useful plants of West Africa. Royal Ecological garden vol 5. families S – Z croctograms and effectiveness of vegetable Tech. information packages by vegetable farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria J. Africa Res. 4(2) 65 – 70.
Danquah – Jones, A (2010). Variation and correlation among agronomic traits of garden egg (Solanum gilo Radii). Dept. of crop science, Accra, University of Ghana, Legon. 30p.
Emeasor, K. C., Ogbuji, R. O. and Emosairue, S. O. (2005). Insecticidal activity of some seed powders agains Callosobruchus masculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on stored cowpea. J. Plant Diseases and Protection, 112(1): 80-87.
Grubben, G.J.H and Denton, O.A Eds, (2004). Plant Resources of tropical Africa II: Vegetables, Leoden, Wageningen, Backluys publishers. Pp.34, 41.
Ibekwe, H. N. (1997). Evaluation of different rates of decis (deltamethrin) in controlling Epilachna hirta and Spodoptera littoralis of Fadama Grown garden egg in Southeastern Nigeria. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the Horticultural Society of Nigeria (HORTSON) at Ibadan; 8-12th April, 1997. Pp. 171 – 173.
Ibekwe, H. N., Ogbu, J. U, Uwalaka, O. A, Ngede, S. O. and Onyegbule, U. N. (2014). Efficacy of plant derived insecticides for the control of insect pests of garden egg (Solanum spp) in Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research 8: 371-376.
Igwe, S. A., Akunyili, D. N and Ogbogu, C. (2003). Effect of Solanum melongena (garden egg) on some functions of visually active Igbos of Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 86: 2–3.
Jilani, G., Saxena, R. C. and Rueda, B. P. (1988). Repellant and growth inhibiting effect of turmeric oil, sweet flag oil, neem oil and margosan – O on red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
Latif, M.A., Raman M.M., Alam M.Z., Hossain M.M. and Solaiman A.R.M., (2009) Threshold based spraying of flubendiamide for the management of Brinjal shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae). Jour,nal of Entomological Society of Iran 2009. 29(1)1-10.,
Misra, H.P., (2008). New promising insecticides for the management of Brinjal shoot and fruit borer, L. orbonalis Guenee. Pest Management Horticulture Ecosystem 14 (2): 140-147.
Mwai, G. N, Onyango, J. C, Abukusta, M. O (2007). Taxonomic identification and characterization of African nightshades (Solanum L. section solanum). African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.7 (4): 212-219.
Okon, U. E, Etiete, A. A. and Bassey, N. E (2010). Technical efficiency and its determinants in Garden egg (Solanum spp) production in Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Field Action Science Report. Special Issue (1).Pp.12-19.
Onekutu, A. (2011). Bioecology and Management of Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee on Solanum gilo Raddi. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.Pp.341.
Onekutu, A. and Omoloye, A. A. (2012). Planting date of garden egg Solanum gilo and egg fruit and shoot borer Leucinodes orbonalis infestation. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science. 17:14 – 19.
Onekutu, A., Omoloye A. A and Odebiyi J. A (2014). Integrated Pest Control of the Eggplant and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis on the Garden Egg, Solanum aethiopicum L. in Southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 4 (7): 1-4.
Ramos, M.V., Banderia, G.P., de Freitas C.D., Nogueria, N.A., Alencar N.M., de Sousa P.A., Carvalho A.F. (2006). Latex constituents from Calotropis procera (R.Br.) display toxicity upon egg hatching and larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.). Me¬morius Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 101 (5): 503–510.
Sudarshan, C. and Pijush, K. S. (2011). Management of Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee on Eggplants during the rainy season in India.Journal of Plant Protection Research, 51 (4): 34-38.
Uwalaka, O. A., Emeasor, K. C., and Nwanguma, E. I. (2012). Effect of some plant materials and some synthetic insecticides in the control of eggplant fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis). In the proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Horticultural Society of Nigeria, held at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. 11-15th November, 2012. Pp. 163-165.
Whitaker, B. D. and Sommel, J. R. (2003). Distribution of hydroxyl cinnamic acid conjugates in fruit of commercial eggplant (Solanum melongena L) cultivar. J. Agric Food Chem.51 (11) 3448 – 54200.